The following table attempts to trace the extensive publication history of the Treatise on the Court. Although De Refuge’s work was made up of two books, the majority of the later translations and re-issues were of only the second book.
The Treatise has sometimes been used as an example of the period’s questionable publishing practices. For instance, the authors initials (DR) appear in all editions, and his name in the 1621 Italian and 1622 English translations, but thirty years later a new English translation appeared that neither credited De Refuge (referring vaguely to a manuscript found on board a ship) nor the fact that it had previously been published in English. This English translation, Arcana Aulica, 1652, was attributed entirely to “Walsingham”. While translated by an obscure English courtier named Edward Walsingham, its popularity was almost certainly due to the association of the name Walsingham to that of Sir Francis Walsingham, Queen Elizabeth’s first spymaster, who had no known connection to the book. The title “Walsingham’s manual” is attached to many subsequent reprints of the Treatise. The entire work was translated back into French 40 years later, this time attributing the work to Sir Francis, despite the fact that at least half a dozen new editions had correctly attributed the work to De Refuge.
Walsingham was not the only author who took De Refuge’s work as his own: other authors reprinted new translations of the Treatise under different titles at least twice in English and once in Latin.
The publication history of the Treatise on the Court
This listing is partial and incomplete. We would welcome input to confirm, improve or add to the listing.
|?1615||Traicté de la court, ou instruction des courtisans. (284p. Unattributed, no date, no location/publisher.) (2,8)|
|1616 - 1617||Traicté de la court, ou instruction des courtisans. Holland, then Paris. Anonymous. (3,5)|
|1618||3rd edition. “augmentée”. Paris : Abraham Saugrain (6). (unattributed, but with the initials “DR”), 1622 (”Nouvelle edition”) (2,3,5,6) Reprinted 1619|
|1621||Trattado della Corte, del signor di Refuge. Italian translation by D. Girolami Canini d’Anghiari. Venice : Gio Battista Ciotti (5, 6)|
|1622||A Treatise of the Court. Digested into Two Bookes. Writen in French by the Noble and Learned Jurisconsult, and Counciller of Estate, Monsieur Denis de Refuges. Translated by John Reynolds. London: Aug. Mathewes for William Lee. (I, II) (4,5,6)|
|1627||Rouen. Paris: Cailloué (5) - reprinted 1631 (2) (unattributed, but with the initials DR)|
|1636||Paris: N. Trabouillet (3,5)Paris: Chez Cardin Besonge|
|1642||Institutiones aulicæ. Latin translation by Pastorius. Amsterdam: Elseviers (under the pseudonym Eusebius Meisnerus) (unattributed). (6) Reprinted 1644 under the title Aulicus inculpatus. (2,3,4,5). Reprinted 1649 (9).|
|1649||Leiden: Chez les Elseviers (2,5,6) Amsterdam: Elseviers (3). Reprinted 1656.|
|1652||Arcana Aulica; or Walsingham’s Manual of Prudential Maxims for the Statesman and Courtier. Translated by Edward Walsingham. London (unattributed): James Young (1, 5). Reprinted 1654 (dated 1655). (1,2,4,5). Reprinted 1694 under the title Arcana aulica:, or, Walsingham’s manual of prudential maxims, for the states-man and courtier. : To which is added Fragmenta regalia:, or, Observations on Queen Elizabeth, her times, and favourites. By Sir Robert Naunton. London : Matthew Gillyflower (1, 6) (unattributed)|
|1655||Kluger Hofmann. German translation by Harsdörffer. Frankfurt: Johann Naumanns. Reprinted 1667. (10)|
|1658||Paris: Chez Estienne Loyson (2,3)
Paris: Guignard (5,8)
Paris: Chez Guillaume de Luyne (9)
|The Accomplished Courtier. Consisting of Institutions and Examples, by which, Courtiers and Officers of State may Square their Transactions Prudently and in Good Order and Method. By H.W. Gent. (unattributed) London: Thomas Dring. Reprinted 1660. (1,2,4). Reprinted 1694 (9).|
|1664||Le nouveau traité de la cour, ou instruction des courtisans, enseignant aux gentilshommes l’art de vivre à la cour et de s’y maintenir. Paris: Claude Barbin. (2,3,5) Reprinted 1672 Paris: Charles Osmont (8)||Latin edition (3)
Der Untadelhaffte Hoffmann. German translation (from the Latin) by G.H. Webern. Lübeck : U. Wetstein (2)
|1665||Le Conseiller d’Estat (5,10)|
|1673||In The Art of Complaisance, or the Means to Oblige in Conversation. New partial translation (unattributed) by S.C. London: John Starkey (I, II). 2nd edition 1677. (1,4,5)|
|1680||Paris: Chez Claude Barbin (5)|
|1684||Aulicus Inculpatus è Gallico in Latinum (2)|
|1695||Le Secret des Cours, ou les Mémoires de Walsingham, Secrétaire d’Etat sous la Reine Elizabeth, contenant les Maximes de Politique necessaries aux Courtisans et aux Ministres d’Etat. Translated by Louis Boulesties de la Contie. Lyon (Cologne?)(4,8)|
|1700||In Memoires et Instructions pour les Ambassadeurs. Sir D. Diggs. Amsterdam(6). Reprinted 1717 as Mémoires et instructions pour les ambassadeurs, ou lettres et negotiations de Walsingham. (2,8) (unattributed)|
|1703||Cologne: Chez Jaques le Brun (6)|
|1722||Arcana Aulica, reprinted in Instructions for Youth, Gentlemen, and Noblemen. London: printed for Randal Minshull at Temple-Bar. Reprinted in 1728 under the title Walsingham’s Manual, or Prudential Maxims for States-men and Courtiers: with Instructions for Youth, Gentlemen, and Noblemen. London: T.C. (1,4,5). Reprinted 1810 with the latter title. (7) (unattributed)|
|1724||Het hof in zyn beinnenste, ofte verhandeling van den inborst, eygenshappen, en politike behandelingen der hovelingen, van de grootste tot de minste… Dutch translation. The Hague. (10)|
|1961||A Practical Guide for Ambitious Politicians, or Walsingham’s Manual. Edited by Gordon Tullock. Columbia : University of South Carolina Press. (6)|
|2006||Facsimile reprint of 1695 Secret des Cours (6) Elibron Classics / Adamant Media Corporation.|
|2007||Treatise on the Court. The Early Modern Management Classic on Organizational Behaviour. Translation by J. Chris Cooper. Boca Raton: Orgpax Publications, 2007.|
If you are familiar with another edition or translation of the Traicté de la cour, please contact us.
unattributed = not attributed to Eustache de Refuge
1. W. Lee Ustick, The Courtier and the Bookseller: Some Vagaries of Seventeenth-Century Publishing. The Review of English Studies, Vol. , No. 18 (Apr., 1929), pp. 143-154.
2. British Library catalogue
3. Antoine Alexandre Barbier, Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Anonymes, Vol III, IV. Paris: Brunet, 1872.
4. Harvard University catalogue
5. Alain Montandon, ed., Bibliographie des traités de savoir-vivre en Europe du Moyen Âge a nos jours. Vol. I, II. Clermont-Ferrand, 1995.
6. Chris Cooper personal collection
7. Gordon Tullock, A Practical Guide for Ambitious Politicians, or Walsingham’s Manual. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1961.
8. Bibliothèque Nationale de France
9. Oxford University library
10. Other sources:
- Dutch 1724: auction record from 2005
- German 1655/1667: Yale University Library
- French 1636 (Besonge): Brown University Library
- French 1665: Gertrude E. Noyes, Bibliography of Courtesy and Conduct Books in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven 1937